Explosives information bulletin no. 52 | 30 October 2017 | Version 2
Transport of security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN)
On 25 June 2004, the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreed to a set of principles to limit access to security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN). Each state and territory will introduce legislation and/or regulations to give effect to the COAG agreement. SSAN is defined in the definition section.
In Queensland, this has been achieved by regulating these products under the Queensland Explosives Regulation 2017.
On the 29 October 2004, the Chief Inspector of Explosives in Queensland declared SSAN to be an explosive. This was followed by an eight-month transitional period, which ceased on the 30 June 2005.
The purpose of this Explosives Information Bulletin is to outline the minimum safety and security requirements to transport SSAN throughout Queensland.
This bulletin is designed to provide information for businesses that transport SSAN under an explosives transport licence. This may include manufacturers, the mining industry, transporters, agricultural and mining suppliers, importers and exporters. Other industries including primary producers who transport SSAN under a licence to use – SSAN in the quantities specified on that licence should consult Explosives Information Bulletin 56 -Regulation of security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN) in Queensland1. Companies that transport SSAN must also meet all safety requirements outlined in Queensland Legislation2, National Transport3 and Industry Codes4.
Note: This information bulletin refers principally to transport by road and rail. For transport by sea, Australian flagged ships should have a security plan under the Commonwealth Maritime Transport Security Act 2003 (MTSA) and foreign flagged ships should have a security plan under the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code and Safety of Life at Sea Convention.
Companies or persons licensed to transport explosives are required to comply with this information bulletin. This requirement is a condition that is endorsed on the licence.
1 A transport licence is not required to transport less than 20kg of SSAN (agreed under National Guidelines Note No 1 Transport). Persons transporting under this quantity must have a licence that authorises possession. See Information Bulletin 51 Transport of low risk loads of explosives.
2 The Explosives Act and Explosives Regulations 2017.
3 The Australian dangerous goods code 7th edition 2007 and Australian explosives code 3rd edition 2009.
4 Australian Explosives Industry Safety Group: Codes of good practice, Mobile processing units and Precursors for explosives.
The following definitions apply to this bulletin:
- Authorised person—a person (in addition to the authority holder) who is named in the security plan and authorised by the regulatory authority under that plan to have unsupervised access to SSAN. This person will have undergone a national criminal history check (NCHC) by the police and politically motivated violence (PMV) check by Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO). Additionally, all those persons involved in the administration side of SSAN and those involved in the risk management process of SSAN should undergo police NCHC and ASIO PMV check.
- Constant surveillance—the presence of an alert and authorised person, or the continuous monitoring by video or electronic surveillance.
- Explained loss—any documented loss caused by such things as product density changes, spillage, calibration variances, effects of humidity etc.
- Long haul journey—all journeys that do not meet the criteria of non-stop journeys, in as much as they require significant stationary periods during which the SSAN is not under constant surveillance. Journeys, which include a meal or rest/sleep break when the SSAN is not under constant surveillance, will be regarded as long haul journeys.
- Non-stop journey—journeys from one designated secure location to another during which there are no stops and in which an authorised person (usually the driver) keeps the SSAN under constant surveillance.
- Regulatory authority—In Queensland, The Explosives Inspectorate, Safety and Health, Department of Natural Resources and Mines. In other states or territories the regulatory authority is the authority that issues the licence or permit.
- Risk management—the systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of:
- hazard identification (what can go wrong and why?)
- risk analysis–comparing the anticipated risks of intervention with the risks of no intervention results (how bad and how likely is it?)
- risk assessment–a systematic process for the identification, analysis and evaluation of a substance, thing or happening (hazard) that may under different circumstances land to an accidental loss or security breach (how acceptable is it?)
- risk control (what can we do about it?)
- Safety management system—that part of the overall management system which included organisational, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the safety policy and so managing the risks associated with business of the organisation. See requirements at section 46, Explosives Regulation 2017.
- Security Sensitive Ammonium Nitrate—under the National Guidelines means ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate emulsions (not Class 15) and ammonium nitrate mixtures containing greater than 45% ammonium nitrate6, excluding solutions7 and ammonium nitrate products that are classified as class 1 explosives.
Note: This includes substances such as calcium ammonium nitrate that are not classified as dangerous goods and dangerous goods with UN numbers 1942, 2067, 2068, 2069, 2070, 2071, 2072 and 3375 where applicable (SSAN meeting this definition but already included under Explosives of Class 1 have been excluded from this definition as they are already regulated under the Explosives Act 1999 (e.g. ANFO)). In Queensland, ammonium nitrate emulsions are declared as an explosive under the Explosives Regulation 2017 and are treated as blasting explosives of Class 5.1. The Explosives Act (Schedule 2) defines an explosive as including:
- a substance or a thing containing a substance, manufactured or used with a view to produce
- a practical effect by explosive
- a pyrotechnic effect
- a substance or thing declared under a regulation to be an explosive. Examples of explosives: ammunition, detonators, gunpowder, nitroglycerine, pyrotechnics (including fireworks).
- a substance or a thing containing a substance, manufactured or used with a view to produce
- Secure—secure from:
- detectable theft
- unexplained loss
- unauthorised access.
- Secure location—for:
- road transport: a secure (e.g. fenced and entry controlled) place where facilities and a management structure exists which ensures accountability for both documenting and receiving or dispatching known quantities of SSAN
- rail transport: rail consignments on a wagon between start and end of journey with all access points to the rail car, container, tank or vessel locked or effectively sealed with substantial tamperproof seals.
- Security risk—risk of:
- theft of SSAN
- unexplained loss of SSAN
- possible sabotage of SSAN
- unauthorised access to SSAN.
- SSAN low risk load—up to 20kg SSAN may be transported without a transport licence if the transportee is approved under the Explosives Information Bulletin 51 or has another authority to possess and transport the product (e.g. a shotfirer licence).
- Sub-contractor—an individual or company employed by the contactor and where the vehicle is listed on the contactors safety management system and security plan.
- Supervised access—where access to SSAN by a worker occurs under the supervision of an authority holder or authorised person, or when working in a defined supervised area as detailed in the security plan.
- Supervised area—an area described in the security plan that has been specifically set aside and identified as a supervised area with appropriate controls and duties delegated to personnel operating in that area.
- The authority holder, or licence holder—the person who has applied for and received a licence from the Explosives Inspectorate to transport SSAN. This person will have undergone a police NCHC and PMV check by ASIO.
- Transit—the temporary storage of a product for up to 72 hours. If the transit area has an SSAN product continuously present at the site it is regarded as a permanent storage site and requires a storage licence.
- Unexplained loss—any documented loss that cannot be explained. If there are reasonable grounds to believe that SSAN has been stolen or lost, this discrepancy should immediately be reported to the local Police and the Explosives Inspectorate.
- Under lock and key would normally include one of the following:
- a secure and lockable freight container or explosives magazine
- in the case of ammonium nitrate emulsions, a lockable tank, quality security locks must be employed; electronic type locks may be acceptable.
- Unsupervised access—access to SSAN when no other person with authorised access is present or has control over the SSAN.
5 Emulsions are precursors defined in Sch 7 of the Regulations as: precursor means a liquid mixture of water, ammonium nitrate and fuels, with or without other oxidising agents, emulsifiers and other chemicals, that:
a. is manufactured with a view to producing explosives
b. is not a class 1 explosive.
6 This is 45% by mass.
7 Solutions – refers to aqueous mixtures where all the SSAN is dissolved in water i.e. there are no visible solid particles in the SSAN/water mix.
What a licence to transport allows
A transport licence enables the holder and the holders employees and sub contractors to possess the SSAN, transport the SSAN in a nominated vehicle and transit activities (temporary storage). The table below summarises the activities covered by the licence to transport explosives–SSAN.
|Licence issued by the Department
|First select the licence in this column to see what activities are permitted.
|May possess explosives under the Act.
|Purchase to conduct licence activity.
|Permitted to export.
|Permitted to Import.
|Sell SSAN under the Act.
|Store SSAN under the Act.
|Transport SSAN under the Act.
|Manufacture SSAN for an explosive application
|Use the product in a particular way. Dispose of spills.
8 A licence to transport covering SSAN is not mandatory for quantities less then 20 kg See Explosives Information Bulletin 51 Approved transport authority holders of low risk loads of explosives. Persons transporting under this quantity must have a licence or authority that authorises possession.
9 This is for the disposal of spilled product only in accordance with the safety management system which may be based on AS 4326.
Where a licence to transport is not required
Explosives Information Bulletin 51 permits specific transport companies to possess and transport up to 20kg of SSAN without a transport licence. The transporter must still meet all the requirements of the Australian Dangerous Goods Code. The approved transporter must account for the SSAN throughout the activity and advise the police and the explosives inspectorate of any theft, attempted theft or loss.
Requirements to transport SSAN
Security and safety considerations
The Explosives Regulation 2017 (Section 134) requires persons transporting an item authorised as an explosives in Queensland to comply with the Australian Explosives Code if the item is a Class 1 explosive, or with the Australian Dangerous Goods Code if it is of another dangerous goods class. SSAN is required to be transported in accordance with the requirements of its dangerous goods classification. For example, SSAN designated, as a Class 5.1 or Class 9 dangerous good must meet the transportation requirements of the Dangerous goods code. Read the Australian dangerous goods code.
To obtain a licence to transport SSAN, a security plan must be submitted to the Explosives Inspectorate (regulatory authority) for review, along with the completed licence application, correct fee and evidence of an operational Safety Management System (SMS)10, Insurance and Registration.
Security plan and risk assessment
The security plan will begin with a security risk assessment, to provide information to the regulatory authority about current security measures and about the risk of theft, unexplained loss, sabotage and unauthorised access. The security plan will provide information to the regulatory authority about how you will meet security requirements. The minimum security requirements are the following:
- Control measures to ensure the SSAN is secure for the duration of the entire journey such as:
- as a minimum, SSAN must be transported in a locked or sealed container or vessel or be under constant surveillance by an authorised person
- where possible, quality security locks should be used. However, in the case of IBC's (e.g. bulk bags or other instances where locks are not practical), substantial tamper-proof seals can be used as an alternative.
- There must be procedures for checking and authorizing persons with unsupervised access to SSAN, including:
- designating a responsible person to maintain the security plan
- instruction of workers on the security plan procedures
- ensuring people with unsupervised access to SSAN have had Police NCHC and ASIO PMV check.
- Record keeping to reconcile any stored, incoming and outgoing quantities of SSAN and to ensure that SSAN is obtained from an authorised person and supplied to an authorised person.
- Procedures for reporting to authorities any loss, theft, attempted theft or any other security incident involving SSAN.
Where sub-contractors are used, the licence holder is responsible for the security plan and safety management system for the sub-contractor. The licence holder must ensure that the subcontractor including their drivers are authorised appropriate persons and satisfy the requirements of this Information Bulletin.
The driver of a vehicle, transporting any consignment of SSAN must operate under the relevant security plans. This will include the security plan of the licence holder and may also include the security plans of others where the SSAN is loaded, unloaded and held in transit storage. The driver must also operate under the safety management system of the licence holder. Relevant features of this system include:
- the driver and the licence holder must operate to the requirements of the Explosives Act, Explosives Regulation 2017, ADG Code and this Information Bulletin.
- the driver must be properly trained and be an appropriate person. Being an appropriate person includes an authorised person, being medically fit, having a satisfactory driver record history.
- the driver must be an authorised person unless an authorised person is also present during the entire journey. The authorised person must have undergone a satisfactory NCHC and PMV check.
- a driver who holds a current Dangerous Goods Drivers Licence issued by the Queensland Department of Transport or a Licence or Permit issued by another State orTerritory will meet some of the training requirements and most of the appropriateness requirements for the driver. The driver must also be trained in the nature and hazardous properties of the SSAN being transported and the actions to be taken to ensure the prevention of accidents, injury and damage to persons and property and to assist in any emergency that may arise in the course of transporting the SSAN. This training should be undertaken in accordance with the licence holder's safety management system.
- medically fit means that the driver must have successfully passed the Dangerous Goods Medical Examination (commercial vehicle drivers) within the last 3 years; and Complying with the ADG Code requirements includes with the marking and placarding, bulk containers, vehicle requirements, segregation and stowage, documentation, safety equipment and procedures during transport that he/she is driving complies with all appropriate sections of the ADG for transporting the class of dangerous goods.
- vehicles transporting SSAN that are non dangerous goods (e.g. calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN)), must comply with the above requirements except for the marking and placarding requirements.
- the driver must have in his/her possession during transport:
- photo identification.
- copy of the Licence to Transport Explosives.
- copy of the endorsement from the licence holder, under the licence holder's safety management system, that the driver is an appropriate person including the listing that the driver is an authorised person, appropriately trained, medically fit and has a satisfactory driver history.
- approved by the licence holder to undertake the transport of SSAN under the current shipping document.
Railway engine drivers in the normal course of their duties will not usually have unsupervised access to SSAN and therefore will not need to be an authorised person (refer definitions).
Security plan for transporting SSAN - Overview
The security plan will describe how you will meet the minimum requirements and any other security measures to be introduced. A "Transport Risk Assessment and Security Plan" template is available from the explosives inspectorate. Digital versions can be obtained on the website listed at the bottom of the page. The security plan will have these five main elements:
- risk management
- personnel management
- site security (road train aggregation depot)
- journey/load security
Note: Security protocols and procedures can be incorporated into the safety management System.
A security risk assessment is a necessary preamble to developing a security plan. The assessment will describe existing security measures and examine the level and type of security risks to your particular business. In clarifying those risks it is necessary to consider outside threats and also the security risk from staff or contractors who have access to your vehicles and SSAN. The risk assessment will document the transport routes to be used and consider the security risks relevant to these routes. You should consider whether current security arrangements leave the SSAN vulnerable to theft, loss or sabotage, and consider security improvements to manage the assessed risk. Security assessments should be reviewed periodically, particularly after a security incident.
Minimum requirements for security plans
There are ten minimum requirements that the security plan must address. Other matters identified in the risk assessment phase should also be covered in the security plan.
Minimum requirement 1: list of authorised persons
The security plan must contain a list of all those who will have unsupervised access to SSAN. This will include the licence applicant (whose NCHC and PMV check will be conducted as part of the application process), and will usually include all drivers of road vehicles. Drivers will be required to undertake a NCHC and PMV check after clearance will be authorised by the licence holder to have unsupervised access to SSAN. To arrange for the checks on drivers and other employees that require authorised access to be conducted please contact the Queensland Police Service on 07 3364 6341 or 07 3364 4139.
Minimum requirement 2: staff recruitment
The security plan or safety management system should include the provision for adding new workers to the list of authorised persons. Should the licence holder wish to add new workers to the list these persons will be required to undertake a NCHC and PMV check and, when cleared, can be added to the security plan in the form of a dated amendment to the list of authorised persons. The security plan must also detail the checks that will be made to confirm the identity of new workers who will have unsupervised access to SSAN.
Identification should be confirmed using the 100 points identification system11, and checks should also be made with the applicant's referees and previous employers. A copy of the 100 points system is included in the Storage and Transport Security Risk Assessment and Security Plan Template available on the Natural Resources and Mines website.
Minimum requirement 3: maintaining the security plan
The security plan must include the nomination of a responsible person/security manager to implement and maintain the security plan, including the instruction of workers in the relevant access controls, recording procedures and reporting of security incidents.
10 Queensland Explosives Regulations 2017, Section 46 and Schedule 3
11 The 100 point identification system is generally used by financial institutions to confirm identity.
Minimum requirement 4: Transport must be from one secure location to another
The licensed transporter must ensure that any site used for loading or temporarily storing SSAN during the loading or transport process is secure. A secure location is one that is identified in the security plan and includes an area that has, as a minimum, security perimeter fencing, lockable gates and access controls. The security plan must contain a site sketch map as defined below. The level of security required will be determined by such issues as the period and frequency of SSAN storage at the site, the amount of SSAN held at the site, and the population density in the area around the site. Constant surveillance may be necessary at locations identified as high risk.
The sketch map should show the layout of the property/ site and the surrounding locality including access routes. For larger sites, map grid references for the property boundaries and SSAN store should be provided, along with the following information. The sketch need not be drawn to scale, but distances between the SSAN store and other facilities should be accurate. The sketch map should show:
- company or individual name
- address and a sketch showing:
- an indication of true north
- street/road names, including distance to nearest town and emergency response centre
- site main entrance
- other vehicle entry points
- internal road layout
- nature of adjoining properties and sites
- each SSAN store, including type of structure
- distances between SSAN stores and protected works12
- distances to fuel storage and dangerous goods stores
- water access sources and emergency equipment such as hydrants, hoses and extinguishers.
Minimum requirement 5: Details of your secure transportation arrangements
The security plan must contain details of your secure transportation arrangements, including the usual route travelled. The following matters need to be addressed:
- Details of the usual and approved transport routes.
- At all times SSAN must be transported under lock and key or be under constant surveillance (refer definition) or be sealed with substantial tamper-proof seals. This means that SSAN will usually be transported in either a locked vessel, freight container, or tank (in the case of Ammonium Nitrate Emulsions) or be under constant surveillance when the freight container, or tank is unlocked. For IBCs during transportation, they should be covered fully by tarpaulins, with as a minimum the corner tie down ropes fitted with substantial tamper-proof seals or under constant surveillance. The load must be secured to the vehicle in accordance with the ADG.
- Locks and seals should meet the following requirements:
- Locks must be quality security locks. They must be of sufficient security rating to ensure they can only be opened with a designated key or by breaking. A suitable padlock should be pick-protected and shackle protected (e.g. concealed shackle using case hardened steel body with raised shoulders) and not be re-keyable. A padlock should also be bolt cutter resistant and have protection against the lock being drilled out. Further information regarding padlock specifications and locksets for doors in buildings can be found in Australian Standards AS 4154.4 – 2002 and AS 4154.2 – 1993 or from a qualified locksmith.
- Seals must be numbered and tamper-proof so as to assist in the detection of theft or attempted theft. They must be robust enough to withstand accidental snapping or breaking or casual access to the product.
- The security plan should take account of the variations in journeys and type of vehicles, such as during long haul journeys the following actions should occur:
- During meal breaks or rest breaks as required by a Transport Act on long haul road journeys, the truck and load should be in a position that allows constant surveillance to be maintained.
- After any break in a journey, the authorised person must inspect the load and ensure that all covers, seals or locks are intact.
- General considerations for all journeys may include:
- transport using enclosed (pan) trucks
- transport using prime movers with open trailer(s)
- prime movers with containerised consignments
- prime movers with enclosed lockable trailers.
Minimum requirement 6: Road vehicles left unattended in transit
When SSAN is left unattended for extended periods, such as road train aggregation yards and sites, it must be left in a secure location and the load must be locked down with quality security locks or substantial numbered seals that will easily detect any tampering. During short breaks, such as meal breaks, the truck and load should be in a position that allows constant surveillance to be
maintained. If constant surveillance cannot be maintained the driver is to recheck seals to confirm there has been no interference with the load. [Note: the requirement to maintain safety as well as
security]. Safety distances from loads to protected works must be maintained. After any break in a journey, the authorised person must inspect the load and ensure that all covers, seals or locks are intact.
Minimum requirement 7: Rail transport
The transport of SSAN by rail must be in locked and sealed containerised units or in locked rail cars with substantial seals. These points are to be met:
- Wherever possible, the doors of containers should be placed facing each other.
- All openings to these containers are to be sealed with substantial tamperproof seals that will require forceful breakage with bolt cutters to enter the container.
- Consignments of SSAN must have a schedule whereby the location of the wagon is continually monitored. This schedule is to be checked for the duration of the transport by a responsible person designated by the operator.
- Where the containers, tanks or vessels are continually locked and/or sealed as prescribed and are transported in accordance with the rail transport schedule and procedures, the presence of an authorised person is not required for the duration of the journey. However, an authorised person must be present at dispatch and receipt of the SSAN, and if containers need to be opened en route or if the SSAN is transported in open rail wagons.
- Containers, tanks or vessels that are continually locked or sealed with substantial tamperproof seals or locks will be deemed to meet the requirements of a secure location. These containers are to be received, loaded, transported and delivered in a manner clearly detailed in the rail transport regulations and procedures.
Minimum requirement 8: Access control procedures must be in place for these items
Authorised persons, that is those having unsupervised access to consignments of SSAN must be clearly identified in the security plan (refer minimum requirement 1). These people are required to undergo NCHC and PMV checking, and once cleared, will be authorised for unsupervised access to SSAN. They may supervise the access of others to SSAN. Locking and sealing procedures, and a key plan are required as follows:
- Locking and sealing procedures: Locking and sealing authorities and procedures must be well defined in the security plan and checks put in place to monitor their effectiveness. (audits of seal supply and usage versus seals confirmed as issued/ destroyed).
- Key plan: a key plan should exist that identifies who has access to keys and where the keys are securely kept. The key plan is a confidential document and its contents must be restricted to those managing the keys and/or the security plan.
Minimum requirement 9: Monitoring of the consignment's location while in transit
The security plan must include a system to monitor the location of the consignment and the instruction of workers in emergency procedures.
- For road transport. This might entail the installation of duress alarms and global positioning systems with tamper alarms.
- For rail transport. Monitoring of the consignment's location is satisfied by compliance with planned and monitored set schedules.
Minimum requirement 10: Record keeping and inventory/consignment procedures
Records must be kept for a minimum of five years, with systems and procedures in place to record the following:
- That SSAN is supplied by authorised persons and only delivered to authorised persons.Where persons are authorised to pick up or receive deliveries on behalf of a third party, photo identification and written authority must accompany the receiver of these consignments.
- That vehicles conveying SSAN are suitable to meet security requirements (i.e. vehicles on which seals can be fitted to detect removal of product) and protocols are in place to refuse loading of any vehicle not equipped for that purpose.
- Details of consignments, including:
- seal numbers, and any changes in seals necessary for part-load deliveries. Seals should be numbered and robust enough to withstand accidental snapping or breaking
- accurate weight measurement or other reconciliation (e.g. number of bags) of all SSAN at loading and unloading
- confirmation on a load-by-load basis that the load was/was not delivered with seals/locks intact
- a system to ensure that product returns of both merchantable quality and spillage recovery are accurately documented and appropriately accounted for.
- Security incidents, including thefts, attempted thefts, sabotage or attempted sabotage, break-ins, attempted break-ins, unexplained losses or any other security incidents. These incidents, including any unexplained loss, must be recorded, investigated, and reported immediately to the police and the regulatory authority.
- A means of reconciling explained losses must be in place and these reconciliations must be checked and countersigned by persons responsible and appointed to do so by both the consignor and receiver. It is accepted that significant discrepancies can and do occur. It is essential that the consignor, consignee and the transportee fully agree and sign off on all reconciliations, and any product unaccounted for must be followed up and reported.
Audits and reviews
Audits and reviews should be conducted regularly and in accordance with the companies' safety management system13. Whenever an incident occurs the pertinent procedures and risk assessment should be reviewed to ensure it remains effective. The security plan and associated support measures need to be constantly reviewed by the licence holder to ensure they remain effective. This may include both internal and external audits of the system that verify its effectiveness on an annual basis.
12 AS 4326:1995 and Explosives Information Bulletin 53
13 The safety management system must contain a section that adequately outlines the frequency of audits and reviews, including retention of reports and remedial action plans. AS 4801:2001 S4.5
The fundamental principle, in relation to the security of SSAN being transported, is that of being able to readily detect a theft and then to notify the police and the regulator promptly. The security plan developed is to meet this principle and ensure that reasonable steps are taken to maintain security.
- Explosives Act 1999 and Explosives Regulation 2017.
- COAG document Principles for the Regulation of Ammonium Nitrate.
- National Working Group SSAN 2004 Guidance Note No 1, Transport.
- Declaration of SSAN as an explosive, 29 Oct 2004.
- Explosives Information Bulletin 56 Regulation of security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN) in Queensland.
- Explosives Information Bulletin 41 Persons appropriateness for access to explosives.
- Explosives Information Bulletin 42 Reviewing your explosives security.
- Explosives Information Bulletin 51 Approved transport authority holders of low risk loads of explosives.
- Explosives Information Bulletin 53 Storage requirements for security sensitive ammonium nitrate (SSAN).
- Australian Standard AS 4326:1995, The storage and handling of oxidising agents.
- Australian Standard AS 2187, Explosives – storage, transport and use, parts 0 and 1.
- Australian Explosives Code Edition 3 2009 and Addendum.
- Australian Dangerous Goods Code volumes 1 and 2, Edition 7 2007.
- Australian Explosives Industry Safety Group; Code of good practice August 2004, Mobile processing units.
Contact: Manager, Explosives Licensing email@example.com
Issued by Queensland Department of Mines and Energy